APERO, Matis (IGN)

Apero is the acronym for Aérotriangulation Photogrammétrique Expérimentale Relativement Opérationnelle. This software, working on Linux and MaxOs, is used for automatic tie point extraction, initial solution computation, bundle adjustment for relative and absolute orientation.

T o o l s


MICMAC (Multi-Images Correspondances, Méthodes Automatiques de Corrélation) uses the orientations and calibrations processed by Apero to create depth maps and dense 3D point clouds. The matching has a multi-scale, multi-resolution, and pyramidal approach.


NUBES Forma focus on the development of a tripartite approach for the architectural surveying and representation: the survey of architectural objects, the construction and the semantic enrichment of their geometrical models, and their handling for the extraction of dimensional informations.

NUBES Imago, MAP-Gamsau (CNRS/MCC)

Nubes Imago is a tool for the documentation of historical buildings. Our research focus on the analysis and the implementation of tools and techniques for semantic annotation of photos, on its storage and retrieval forma database and on the manipulation of information in a real-time 3D scene.

NUBES Visum, MAP-Gamsau (CNRS/MCC)

NUBES VISUM consists of a web-based application with a tripartite architecture: storage of heterogeneous data; a MySQL database is used to organise the raw survey data; the various representations and associated information, according to different user profiles.

Pistou, MAP-Gamsau (CNRS/MCC)

Pistou (for Photo-based inSTant pOint cloUd) is a graphical user interface developped in C++, wich allows to use in an simple and ergonomic way the different algorythms (Pastis, Apero and MicMac) required for the automatic point cloud generation.

Apero and MicMac are also implemented with an end-user GUI with dedicated context interfaces:   

Aioli, MAP-Gamsau (CNRS/MCC)

Aioli (Architectural Image-Oriented expLoratIon) is a web-viewer for image-based 3D navigation and point clouds visualization. It allows to jump between the different image points of views, back-projecting the point clouds onto the images

Background, tools and technologies

Work in progress


This is a forum dedicated to the Apero and MicMac users. It contains various informations about the softwares (settings, theoric matters etc.) and gathers many questions and problematics tied up to their use.

Technical support